Many translated example sentences containing "deutscher Adler" – English- German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Many translated example sentences containing "Adler gleiten" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Adler translation english, German - English dictionary, meaning, see also 'Ader', Adlerauge',Adlerfarn',Adlernase', example of use, definition, conjugation.
Adler died from a heart attack in in Aberdeen , Scotland, during a lecture tour, although his remains went missing and were unaccounted for until While still a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society he developed a theory of organic inferiority and compensation that was the prototype for his later turn to phenomenology and the development of his famous concept, the inferiority complex.
Adler was also influenced by the philosophies of Immanuel Kant , Friedrich Nietzsche , Rudolf Virchow and the statesman Jan Smuts who coined the term " holism ".
Adler was an early advocate in psychology for prevention and emphasized the training of parents, teachers, social workers and so on in democratic approaches that allow a child to exercise their power through reasoned decision making whilst co-operating with others.
He was a social idealist, and was known as a socialist in his early years of association with psychoanalysis — Adler was pragmatic and believed that lay people could make practical use of the insights of psychology.
Adler was also an early supporter of feminism in psychology and the social world, believing that feelings of superiority and inferiority were often gendered and expressed symptomatically in characteristic masculine and feminine styles.
These styles could form the basis of psychic compensation and lead to mental health difficulties. Adler also spoke of "safeguarding tendencies" and neurotic behavior  long before Anna Freud wrote about the same phenomena in her book The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense.
Adlerian-based scholarly, clinical and social practices focus on the following topics: From its inception, Adlerian psychology has included both professional and lay adherents.
Adler felt that all people could make use of the scientific insights garnered by psychology and he welcomed everyone, from decorated academics to those with no formal education to participate in spreading the principles of Adlerian psychology.
He argued that human personality could be explained teleologically: If the corrective factors were disregarded and the individual overcompensated, then an inferiority complex would occur, fostering the danger of the individual becoming egocentric, power-hungry and aggressive or worse.
Common therapeutic tools include the use of humor, historical instances, and paradoxical injunctions. Adler maintained that human psychology is psychodynamic in nature.
These goals have a "teleological" function. Usually there is a fictional final goal which can be deciphered alongside of innumerable sub-goals.
For example, in anorexia nervosa the fictive final goal is to "be perfectly thin" overcompensation on the basis of a feeling of inferiority.
Hence, the fictive final goal can serve a persecutory function that is ever-present in subjectivity though its trace springs are usually unconscious.
The end goal of being "thin" is fictive however since it can never be subjectively achieved. Teleology serves another vital function for Adlerians.
The metaphysical thread of Adlerian theory does not problematise the notion of teleology since concepts such as eternity an ungraspable end where time ceases to exist match the religious aspects that are held in tandem.
Both Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Ellis in particular was a member of the North American Society for Adlerian Psychology and served as an editorial board member for the Adlerian Journal Individual Psychology.
Metaphysical Adlerians emphasise a spiritual holism in keeping with what Jan Smuts articulated Smuts coined the term "holism" , that is, the spiritual sense of one-ness that holism usually implies etymology of holism: These discourses eschew a reductive approach to understanding human psychology and psychopathology.
Adler developed a scheme of so-called personality types, which were however always to be taken as provisional or heuristic since he did not, in essence, believe in personality types, and at different times proposed different and equally tentative systems.
Nevertheless, he intended to illustrate patterns that could denote a characteristic governed under the overall style of life. He maintained that memories are never incidental or trivial; rather, they are chosen reminders: Out of the incalculable number of impressions that an individual receives, she chooses to remember only those which she considers, however dimly, to have a bearing on her problems.
Adler believed that the firstborn child would be in a favorable position, enjoying the full attention of the eager new parents until the arrival of a second child.
This second child would cause the first born to suffer feelings of dethronement, no longer being the center of attention.
As a result, he predicted that this child was the most likely to end up in jail or an asylum. Youngest children would tend to be overindulged, leading to poor social empathy.
Consequently, the middle child, who would experience neither dethronement nor overindulgence, was most likely to develop into a successful individual yet also most likely to be a rebel and to feel squeezed-out.
Adler himself was the third some sources credit second in a family of six children. Adler never produced any scientific support for his interpretations on birth order roles, nor did he feel the need to.
Hence, Adlerians spend time therapeutically mapping the influence that siblings or lack thereof had on the psychology of their clients. For Adler, birth order answered the question, "Why do children, who are raised in the same family, grow up with very different personalities?
The position in the family constellation, Adler said, is the reason for these differences in personality and not genetics: In addition to applying his individual psychology approach of organ inferiority, for example, to the onset and causes of addictive behaviours, he also tried to find a clear relationship of drug cravings to sexual gratification or their substitutions.
Early pharmaco-therapeutic interventions with non-addictive substances, such as neuphyllin were used, since withdrawal symptoms were explained by a form of "water-poisoning" that made the use of diuretics necessary.
Clearly, life style choices and situations were emphasized, for example the need for relaxation or the negative effects of early childhood conflicts were examined, which compared to other authoritarian or religious treatment regimens, were clearly modern approaches.
In , he began his writings on homosexuality with a page magazine, and sporadically published more thoughts throughout the rest of his life.
The Dutch psychologist Gerard J. There is evidence that Adler may have moved towards abandoning the hypothesis. McDowell, a New York state family social worker recalls undertaking supervision with Adler on a young man who was " living in sin " with an older man in New York City.
Adler asked her, "Is he happy, would you say? These were but ways of obtaining a slight release for a physical need while avoiding a greater obligation.
A transient partner of your own sex is a better known road and requires less courage than a permanent contact with an "unknown" sex.
Work or employment, love or marriage, social contact. Adler emphasized both treatment and prevention. With regard to psychodynamic psychology, Adlerians emphasize the foundational importance of childhood in developing personality and any tendency towards various forms of psychopathology.
The best way to inoculate against what are now termed "personality disorders" what Adler had called the "neurotic character" , or a tendency to various neurotic conditions depression, anxiety, etc.
The responsibility of the optimal development of the child is not limited to the mother or father, but rather includes teachers and society more broadly.
Adler argued therefore that teachers, nurses, social workers, and so on require training in parent education to complement the work of the family in fostering a democratic character.
When a child does not feel equal and is enacted upon abused through pampering or neglect he or she is likely to develop inferiority or superiority complexes and various concomitant compensation strategies.
In a late work, Social Interest: Unabashedly, he argues his vision of society: I see no reason to be afraid of metaphysics; it has had a great influence on human life and development.
We are not blessed with the possession of absolute truth; on that account we are compelled to form theories for ourselves about our future, about the results of our actions, etc.
Our idea of social feeling as the final form of humanity - of an imagined state in which all the problems of life are solved and all our relations to the external world rightly adjusted - is a regulative ideal, a goal that gives our direction.
This goal of perfection must bear within it the goal of an ideal community, because all that we value in life, all that endures and continues to endure, is eternally the product of this social feeling.
Clearly, Adler himself had little problem with adopting a metaphysical and spiritual point of view to support his theories.
Yet his overall theoretical yield provides ample room for the dialectical humanist modernist and the postmodernist to explain the significance of community and ecology through differing lenses even if Adlerians have not fully considered how deeply divisive and contradictory these three threads of metaphysics, modernism, and post modernism are.
Adler died suddenly in Aberdeen , Scotland , in May , during a three-week visit to the University of Aberdeen. While walking down the street, he was seen to collapse and lie motionless on the pavement.
As a man ran over to him and loosened his collar, Adler mumbled "Kurt", the name of his daughter and died. The autopsy performed determined his death was caused by a degeneration of the heart muscle.
In , his ashes were rediscovered in a casket at Warriston Crematorium and returned to Vienna for burial in Ellenberger writes, "It would not be easy to find another author from which so much has been borrowed on all sides without acknowledgement than Alfred Adler.
He also imagined a person to be connected or associated with the surrounding world. Adler emphasized the importance of equality in preventing various forms of psychopathology, and espoused the development of social interest and democratic family structures for raising children.
Adler was also among the first in psychology to argue in favor of feminism , and the female analyst,  making the case that power dynamics between men and women and associations with masculinity and femininity are crucial to understanding human psychology Connell, During his college years, he had become attached to a group of socialist students, among which he had found his wife-to-be, Raissa Timofeyewna Epstein, an intellectual and social activist from Russia studying in Vienna.
They married in and had four children, two of whom became psychiatrists. The two main characters in the novel Plant Teacher engage in a session of Adlerian lifestyle interpretation, including early memory interpretation.
In his lifetime, Adler published more than books and articles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has an unclear citation style.
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